Certified Low Vision Therapist (CLVT) Handbook, Section 3, Low Vision Therapist Body of Knowledge and Competencies
KNOWLEDGE OF THE VISUAL SYSTEM
- Know the visual system (oculomotor system, eye, optic pathway, and brain).
- Know eye conditions and their implications.
KNOWLEDGE OF THE IMPACT OF DISEASE, TRAUMA & AGING ON VISUAL SYSTEM
- Know normal changes in vision with aging, such as changes in the lens, pupil size, light/dark adaptation, and glare sensitivity.
- Know visual and non-visual effects of other medical conditions such as diabetes, head injury, multiple sclerosis, cerebral palsy, or Parkinson's on vision rehabilitation.
- Know psychosocial consequences of vision impairment.
KNOWLEDGE OF OPTICAL AND NON-OPTICAL EQUIPMENT AND INTERVENTION STRATEGIES
- Know and use principles of optics including implications of refractive errors, effects of lenses on magnification, effects of prisms, and the different definitions of magnification.
- Know clinical rationales for prescription of optical devices.
- Know optical devices used for near tasks including magnification and optical specifications, advantages and limitations, positioning requirements, appropriate visual skills, and care and maintenance.
- Know optical devices used for intermediate tasks, magnification specifications, including advantages and limitations, appropriate visual skills, and care and maintenance.
- Know optical devices for distance tasks including magnification specification, advantages and limitations, appropriate visual skills, and care and maintenance.
- Know field expansion devices.
- Know non-optical and electronic, computer based devices for magnification.
- Know optical and non-optical devices for lighting and glare control.
- Know non-optical devices for activities of daily living, leisure skills, educational and vocational activities.
- Know other options including text-to-speech systems for reading.
KNOWLEDGE OF THE REFERRED CONSUMER
- Know normal human development across the life span (visual development from birth, major physiological, motor, cognitive, and sensory changes, and their implications).
KNOWLEDGE OF COMPONENTS OF LOW VISION EVALUATION
- Review and interpret vision reports including abbreviations and notations that describe pathology, visual functioning, and refractive error.
- Know tools and techniques for evaluating the visual function of consumers who have differing cognitive and linguistic abilities.
- Know tools, techniques, and notations for evaluating functional visual acuities, interpreting results, and integrating results into treatment.
- Know tools and techniques for evaluating functional visual fields, interpreting results, and integrating results into treatment.
- Know tools and techniques for evaluating contrast sensitivity, interpreting results, and integrating results into treatment.
- Know techniques for observing, evaluating, & interpreting performance of ocular motor skills, use of Preferred Retinal Locus, and light/dark adaptation.
- Evaluate environment (school, work, and home) including lighting, glare, visual clutter and impact on visual function, and ergonomics.
- Evaluate visual demands of a task considering size and distance of target, lighting, contrast, duration and speed.
- Know how to calculate and apply acuity reserve, contrast reserve and field of view requirements for reading.
- Know basis for and how to complete a reading media assessment.
- Evaluate the appropriateness of devices for the performance of daily living, vocational and educational activities.
- Know the basis for referral for Braille instruction.
KNOWLEDGE OF HOW TO PLAN AN INDIVIDUALIZED VISION REHABILITATION PLAN WITH CONSUMER & FAMILY
- Know techniques and strategies for eliciting vision rehabilitation goals during the interview with the consumer and family.
- Know how to write observable and measurable goals.
- Know how to present and write recommendations, accommodations, and use of appropriate materials across environments.
- Know the basis for referral to other vision rehabilitation and rehabilitation professionals including, but not limited to, vision rehabilitation therapist, vocational counselor, educator, orientation & mobility specialists, occupational therapists, physical therapists, speech therapists, social workers, physicians, psychologists, and psychiatrists.
KNOWLEDGE OF HOW TO IMPLEMENT AN INDIVIDUALIZED VISION REHABILITATION PLAN WITH CONSUMER & FAMILY
- Know techniques for integrating the performance of ocular motor skills, and eccentric viewing into daily activities.
- Know how to meet visual requirements of a task by considering size, distance, lighting, contrast, duration, and speed of a target.
- Know methods and materials for teaching visual skills including localizing, focusing, fixation, tracing, scanning, tracking, and distance and depth judgment.
- Know methods and materials for teaching awareness and implications of central and peripheral visual field loss and use of remaining vision.
- Know and apply principles of optics, size and relative distance magnification and implications of refractive errors to compensate for impaired visual acuity to enable performance of a variety of activities.
- Know how to select alternative optical devices that have equivalent magnification properties.
- Know how to teach use of optical devices to perform a variety of self-care, leisure, academic, household and vocational activities.
- Know how to design and teach use of non-optical strategies to achieve magnification, ergonomic solutions, contrast enhancement, optimal lighting, glare control, performance of activities of daily living.
- Know how computer assistive devices and software enable achievement of home management, vocational and educational goals.
- Know appropriate referral resources including vision rehabilitation services, medical and other healthcare, social/recreational, educational support services, vocational rehabilitation, and community services.
KNOWLEDGE OF HOW TO MANAGE PRACTICE AND RESOURCES
- Know aspects of maintaining confidentiality of consumer information.
- Know application of professional code of ethics and standards of practice.
- Know the laws and legal issues that apply to education and rehabilitation practice.
- Describe policies and requirements for insurance and governmental funding for services and devices.
CLINICAL PRACTICE COMPETENCIES
- Demonstrate appropriate interpersonal relationships and the ability to work closely with colleagues and community professionals as a member of the interdisciplinary low vision team.
- Demonstrate a professional attitude and ethical behavior.
- Demonstrate a working knowledge of teaching and learning principles.
- Demonstrate the ability to assess the visual environment, provide appropriate environmental adaptations, and teach the use of environmental cues for using vision.
- Demonstrate an ability to interpret assessment data provided by professionals from a variety of disciplines.
- Demonstrate the ability to understand and utilize information from the clinical low vision examination.
- Demonstrate the ability to administer vision assessments and interpret results appropriately.
- Demonstrate the ability to assess and evaluate learners' needs and abilities in a variety of environments.
- Demonstrate the ability to assess the learners' effective use of low vision devices.
- Demonstrate the ability to plan appropriate goals for enhancing visual functioning with and without optical devices.
- Demonstrate the ability to select, design, and implement a sequential instructional plan.
- Demonstrate a working knowledge of the effects of disabling co-morbidities.
- Demonstrate knowledge of community, state, and national resources for vision education/rehabilitation.
- Demonstrate the ability to teach visual skills including fixation, localization, scanning, tracing and tracking to numerous learners with low vision for a variety of everyday tasks.
- Demonstrate the ability to record data, keep timely and accurate records, and participate in staff meetings.
- Demonstrate the ability to make appropriate referrals to other professionals and acquire/provide resources to address a variety of needs of learners who have visual impairments.
- Demonstrate the ability to design and implement low vision intervention programs for everyday tasks that are appropriate to the age, developmental level, and goals of the learners.
- Demonstrate the ability to instruct learners in the appropriate use of optical, electronic, and non-optical low
- Demonstrate the ability to teach or refer for the use of alternative media or senses for tasks that are not efficiently or safely accomplished using vision.
- Demonstrate the ability to write appropriate reports of the learners' progress in reaching the goals and objectives of their vision education/rehabilitation programs.
- Demonstrate the ability to evaluate outcomes of intervention and provide appropriate follow-up.